La desarticulación social del cuerpo. Polisemia de la violación y subjetividad resistente en el genocidio ruandés

Michela Fusaschi

Abstract


During the Rwandan genocide of 1994 up to half a million women and children, predominantly Tutsi, suffered large-scale rape and other types of sexual violence because of both their ethnicity and their gender. The Interahamwe militia, military and political leaders [sometimes women] directed or encouraged sexual assault to promote the annihilation of the Tutsi as a group. Some women managed to survive, and they tried to testimony in Kinyarwanda, their native language. In this article, based on field work conducted in post genocide since 2004, the author seeks an historical and anthropological interpretation of this violence. Finally, the author explores how the Rwandan subjectivity can’t be explained based on Western visions and judgments.


Keyword


‘gender’, ‘subjectivity’, ‘rape’, ‘Rwanda’, ‘genocide’

Full Text

PDF HTML

Riferimenti bibliografici


Amnistía Internacional 2004, Ruanda: Marcadas para morir. Sobrevivientes de violación afectadas de VIH/sida, https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/92000/afr470112004es.pdf.

Appadurai A. 2005, Sicuri da morire. La violenza nell’epoca della globalizzazione, Roma: Meltemi.

Balandier G. 1951, La situation coloniale: approche théorique, «Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie» 11 : 44-79.

Bonnet C. 1995, Le viol des femmes survivantes du génocide au Rwanda, R. Verdier, E. Deacaux, J.-P. Chrétien [eds.] 1995, Rwanda. Un génocide du XXIème siècle, Paris: L’Harmattan:18-36.

Bourke J. 2009, Stupro. Storia della violenza sessuale, Roma-Bari: Laterza, 2009 [I ed., London, 2007].

Brownmiller S. 1975, Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape, Ny: Fawcett Books.

Burnet J. 2012, Genocide live in us. Women, Memory, and Silence in Rwanda, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

-- 2015, Rape as a Weapon of Genocide: Gender, Patriarchy, and Sexual Violence in the Rwandan Genocide, Anthropology Faculty Publications 13: https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/anthro_facpub/13

Busaglia I., 2009, Tradizione e menzogne: il rituale matrimoniale rwandese nel post-genocidio, in Fusaschi M. (ed.) 2009, Rwanda. Etnografie del post-genocidio, Roma : Meltemi 116-135.

De Lame D., 1999, Idéologie d’ici et là des Rwandaises et une anthropologue, in Jonckers D., Carré R., Dupré M.C. (eds.) 1999, Femmes plurielles: representations des femmes, Paris : Maison des sciences de l’homme, 35-56.

Declich F. 2017, Violenza di genere e conflitti: considerazioni antropologiche, «Dada», 1: 125-136.

Degni-Ségui R. (ed.) 1995, Report on the situation of human rights in Rwanda, United Nations-Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights.

Des Forges A. 1999, Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda, New York: Human Rights Watch.

Donnard G. 2007, Femmes dans la guerre aujourd’hui, «Moltitudes», 67-68 : 93-110.

Fusaschi, M. 2000, Hutu-Tutsi. Alle radici del genocidio rwandese, Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

-- 2009 (ed.) Rwanda. Etnografie del post genocidio, Roma: Meltemi.

-- 2013, Le silence se fait parole. Ethnographie, genre et superstes dans le post génocide rwandais, «Archivio Antropologico del Mediterraneo», 15 [2]: 29-40.

-- 2014, Verba docent, et exempla ? Elementi per un’etnografia delle com/memorazioni del genocidio dei Tutsi del Rwanda, «Africa e Orienti» : 49-63.

-- 2015, Politiche della confessione e de-centralizzazione della giustizia: i tribunali gacaca nel Rwanda del post-genocidio, « Parolechiave» 53: 63-72.

-- 2016, Asegúrate de no estar desnuda”: corporalidad y sexualidad en la Rwanda del post-genocidio, jn J.Martì, L. Porzio (ed.) 2016, Cuerpos y agencia en la arena social, Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 24-37.

-- 2018, L'etnografia attraversata dal genere: per uno sguardo storico e pratico-politico sulle soggettività, «Etnografia e ricerca qualitativa». 2: 387-401.

-- 2020, Trouble dans le gukuna rwandais. Fémocratie, féminismes et anthropologie critique in «ANUAC», 9 [ 2]: 17-43.

Fusaschi M., Pompeo F. 2015, Terra, donne e memorie: note etnografiche nel post genocidio ruandese, «Parolechiave», 44 : 47-61.

Grundfest Schoepf B., 2006, Genocidio e violenza di genere in Rwanda, «Annuario di Antropologia», 8: 113-144.

Guariso A., Ingelaere B., Verpoorten M. 2017, Female political representation in the aftermath of ethnic violence: A comparative analysis of Burundi and Rwanda WIDER Working Paper, 74.

Guenivet K., 2001 Violences sexuelles. La nouvelle arme de guerre, Paris: Michalon.

Jacob I. 1983, Dictionnaire Rwandais-Français, tomes I, II, III, Kigali, Rwanda, Institut National de Recherche Scientifique.

Kaldor M. 2001, Las nuevas guerras. Violencia organizada en la era global, Barcelona: Tusquets (ed. or. 1999).

Moufllet V. 2008, Le paradigme du viol comme arme de guerre à l’est de la République Démocratique du Congo, «Afrique contemporaine», 3: 119-133.

Mukamana D., Brysiewicz P. 2008, The Lived Experience of Genocide Rape Survivors in Rwanda, «Journal Nursing Scholarship»; 40 (4): 379–384.

Nahoum-Grappe V., 1997, La purification ethnique et les viols systématiques. Ex-Yougoslavie 1991-1995, «Clio», 5, http://clio.revues.org/416.

Nordstrom, C., Robbena,A. (eds.) 1995, Fieldwork Under Fire. Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, California University Press.

Oyêwùmí O. 2002, Conceptualizing Gender: The Eurocentric Foundations of Feminist Concepts and the Challenge of African Epistemologies, «Jenda, A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies», dossier Feminism and Africa, 2, (1): 6–10.

Riot T. 2008, Pratiques du corps, ethnicité et métissages culturels dans le Rwanda colonial (1945-1952), «Cahiers d'études africaines», 4 (192) : 815-834.

Segato R. L. 2016, La guerra contra las mujeres, Madrid : Traficantes de Sueños.

Seifert R. 2007, Il corpo femminile come corpo politico: lo stupro, la guerra e la nazione, «Difesa sociale», 2: 55-70.

Sironi F., Branche R. 2002, La touture aux frontiers de l’humain, “Revue Internationale des sciences sociales», 4 (174): 591-600.

Straus S. 2006, The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2006.

Taylor C. C. 1988, The concept of flow in Rwandan popular medicine, «Social Science and Medicine», 27, pp. 1343–1348.

-- 1990, Condoms and cosmology: The ‘fractal’ person and sexual risk in Rwanda, «Social Science and Medicine» 31 : 1023–1028.

-- 1992 Milk, honey and money: Changing concepts in Rwandan healing, Washington : The Smithsonian Institution Press.

Turshen M. 2001, The Political Economy of Rape: An Analysis of Systematic Rape and Sexual Abuse of Women During Armed Conflict in Africa in C.O.N. Moser , F.C. Clark Victims (eds.) 2001,

Perpetrators, or Actors?: Gender, Armed Conflict, and Political Violence, London: Zed Books: 55-68.

Vandersypen M. 1977, Femmes libres de Kigali, « Cahiers d'études africaines» 17(65): 95-120.

Vigarello G. 1998, Histoire du viol XVI-XX siècle, Paris: Seuil.

Weitsman P. A., 2008, The Politics of Identity and Sexual Violence: A Review of Bosnia and Rwanda, «Human Rights Quarterly», 30 (3): 561-578.

Winkler C. 1991, Rape as Social Murder, «Anthropology today», 7(3): 12-14.

Wood E. 2008, Sexual Violence during War: Toward an Understanding of Variation, in Shapiro, Kalyvas Masoud (eds.) 2008, Order, Conflict and Violence, New York: Cambridge University Press.


Refback

  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.




ISSN 2284-0176

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY- 4.0)