The role of documentary filmmaking in formation of visual anthropology of Russia

Evgeny Aleksandrov

Abstract


In the history of forming of visual anthropology as a method of
intercultural communication in Russia up to the present time documentary
cinematograph takes a dominant lead. Taking into account the change of
ideology and the information technologies’ development level there can be
marked several stages:
• Already in the pre-revolutionary period the documentary cinematograph
started realizing its cognitive function, which made its core function
with time. Unpretentious short fragments of the chronicle are nowadays
considered the rare evidences of the passed life.
• After the revolution the new state from its very steps set a task for
cinematography to form a “new man”. This movement was headed by
Dziga Vertov, an ideologist of a special vision of reality via cinema camera
and via influencing the spectators through the documentary screen. His
“kino-pravda” had become a symbol for the researchers of the real world
with the help of the movie language. The movie “A Sixth Part of the World”
became an unprecedented project of a simultaneous documenting of lives
of different peoples in vast territories of the country, and it inspired other
documentary filmmakers for making movies on ethnographic topics.
• The post-war period was the time of a reviewing “kino-atlas” based on
popular science movies – “travelogues”, where just a little time was spared
to ethnographic topic. The common cinema target became showing the
achievements of the Soviet system. Participation of scientific community
was limited to advisor’s role. Just in some particular cases there were
created university and academic ethnographic movies.
• The first in the USSR territory festival of visual anthropology in Parnu
town offered a new approach to showing the life of human communities.
The main challenge of the film directors was to reveal the essential features
of lives of those people who confided to tell their stories. Such principles
of visual anthropology as authenticity and moral responsibility towards the
depicted culture became a challenge to the attitudes to forming the mindset
of the spectator in an available form.
The contemporary period of visual anthropology development is marked with
search of ways of integration of scientific approaches of modern anthropology
and a newly forming ethical and aesthetical language of the documentary
cinema.


Keyword


visual anthropology, intercultural communication in Russia, documentary cinematograph, Dziga Vertov, popular science movies – “travelogues”, integration of scientific approaches of modern anthropology

Full Text

PDF HTML (English)

Riferimenti bibliografici


Aleksandrov E.V. 1998, "Sozvuchnaja kamera" v "dialoge kul'tur", Material basis of culture. To the first festival of visual anthropology in Russia, Moscow: Russian State Library, 2: 62-68.

Aleksandrov E.V. 2003, Opyt rassmotrenija teoreticheskih i

metodologicheskih problem vizual'noj antropologii,Moscow: Penaty.

Aleksandrov E.V. et. al. 2007, Forum Vizual'naya antropologiya, «Forum

for Anthropology and Culture: Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology

and Ethnography (the Kunstkamera) Russian Academy of Sciences», Saint-Petersburg, 7: 6-108.

Aleksandrov E.V. 2017, Centrostremitel'nyj vektor v bezgranich'i vizual'noj antropologii, «Siberian historical research Tomsk State University», Tomsk, 3: 11-28.

Arzyutov D. 2016, Etnograf s kinokameroj v rukah: Prokof'evy i

nachalo vizual'noj antropologii samodijcev, «Forum for Anthropology

and Culture: Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography

(the Kunstkamera) Russian Academy of Sciences», Saint-Petersburg, 29: 187-219.

Baklin N.V, Kalashnikov A.G 2003, Pervye shagi nauchnogo kino v Rossii (Publikatsiya A.S.Deryabina, kommentarii S.V.Skovorodnikovoj pri uchastii A.S.Deryabina, «Kinovedcheskie zapiski», Moscow: Eisenstein Centre, 64: 184-189.

Batalin V.N., Malysheva G.E. 2011, Istorija Rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo arhiva kinofotodokumentov. 1926–1966 g. , Saint-Petersburg: Liki Rossii.

Chuyko S. 2017, Tropoj Sakari Pjalsi, «Gazeta Krajnij Sever», Anadyr, 13/07.

Czeczot-Gawrak Z. 1995, Bolesław Matuszewski, filozof i pionier dokumentu filmowego. — W: Bolesław Matuszewski. Nowe źródło historii. Ożywiona fotografia, czym jest, czym byc powinna, Warszawa: Filmoteka Narodowa.

Danilko E.S. 2017, Kazymskij perevorot k istorii pervogo vizual'no-

antropologicheskogo proekta v Rossii, «Siberian historical research», Tomsk State University, 3: 95-112.

Deryabin A. 1995, Vertov i Erofeev: Dve vetvi dokumentalistiki, «Flahertiana Festival katalog», Perm', Novyj Kurs Film Studio: 65–71.

Deryabin A. 1999, O fil'makh-puteshestviiakh i Aleksandre Litvinove,

«Vestnik Zelenoe spasenie», Almaty: Germes, 11: 14-23.

Deryabin A. 2001, Nasha psihologiya i ih psihologiya— sovershenno raznye veschi. «Afganistan» Vladimira Erofeeva i sovetsky kul'turfil'm dvadtsatyh godov, «Kinovedcheskie zapiski», Moscow, Jejzenshtejn-centr, 54: 53-70.

Gibert G. G., Nyrkova D. A. 2016, Kavkaz v dorevoljucionnom

dokumental'nom kino, Krasnodar: Nasledie vekov.

Glebova N. 2016, Tolstoj v dokumental'noy kinohronike, «Narodnoe slovo», Lipetsk Region, settlement Lev Tolstoi, 12.12, https://narodnoeslovo.ru/?p=7618

Golovnev A. V. 2011, Antropologija plus kino, «Kul'tura i iskusstvo» NB-

Media, Moscow, 1: 83-91.

Golovneva E. V., Golovnev I. A. 2016, Vizualizaciya regiona sredstvami

kinematografa (na primere «Kinoatlasa SSSR»), «Izvestia. Ural Federal

University Journal», Yekaterinburg, series 1, 22 (3): 146-151.

Golovnev I. A. 2016, “Lesnye lyudi” – fenomen sovetskogo

etnograficheskogo kino, «Etnograficheskoe obozrenie», Moscow: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology Russian Academy of Sciences’, 2: 83-98.

Hicks J. 2017, Marina Razbezhkina: Five Interdictions and the Zone of

the Snake, «KinoKultura», Bristol 55, http://www.kinokultura.com/2017/55-hicks.shtml.

Ishevskaja S., Viren D. 2007, Boleslav Matuszewski . Zhivaja fotografija:

chem ona javljaetsja i chem dolzhna stat'. Perevodchik Grigorij Boltyansky. Publikacija, Predislovie i kommentarii Svetlany Ishevskoj i Denisa Virena, «Kinovedcheskie zapiski», Moscow: Eisenstein Centre, 83: 128-161.

Jacoby J. 1995, Znałem Bolesława Matuszewskiego. W: Bolesław

Matuszewski. Nowe źródło historii. Ożywiona fotografia, czym jest, czym byc powinna. Filmoteka Narodowa, «National Film Archive», Warsaw: 37-42.

Kubeev B.V. 1958, Nauchnaja kinodokumentacija , vypolnennaja v vuzah v 1945-1957 gg ., Moscow: Sovetskaya nauka.

Lebedev N.A. 1947, Ocherk istorii kino SSSR: Nemoe kino, Moscow:

Goskinoizdat.

Lemberg A. 1976, Druzhba, ispytannaya desyatiletiyami – V: Dziga Vertov v vospominaniyah sovremennikov, Moscow: Iskusstvo: 79–85.

Macza I. 1933, Rossijskaya associaciya proletarskih hudozhnikov v zhurnale «Za proletarskoe iskusstvo» 1931, «Sovetskoe iskusstvo za 15 let», No 5, Moscow-Leningrad: OGIZ-IZOGIZ.

Magidov V.M. 1999, Itogi kinematograficheskoj i nauchnoj dejatel'nosti

B.Matushevskogo v Rossii, «Kinovedcheskie zapiski», Moscow:

Jejzenshtejn-centr, 43: 268-280.

Malevich K. 1933. Programma «levyh» bespredmetnikov v zhurnale

«Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo», No 1, 1919 g. - Sovetskoe iskusstvo za 15 let, Moscow-Leningrad: OGIZ-IZOGIZ.

Medvedev M. 2014, Dziga Vertov. Lovets zvukov, ili Doktor Frankenshtein, «Chastnyj korrespondent», Moscow 02.01

ww.chaskor.ru/article/2_yanvaryadziga_vertov_lovets_zvukov_ili_doktor_frankenshtejnThe role of documentary filmmaking 99

Mislavskij V.N. 2006,Alfred Fedetsky: K biografii pervogo rossijskogo

kinooperatora, «Kinovedcheskie zapiski», Moscow: Eisenstein Centre, 77: 163–213.

Pechenkin P. 2014, Esli ty zhivesh' v Permi i hochesh' zanimat'sya

kino, net neobkhodimosti uezzhat' v Moskvu, «Entciklopediya

dokumental'nogo kino», Moscow: Gil'diya neigrovogo kino i televideniya,

11. // http://rgdoc.ru/materials/intervyu/13041-pavel-pechenkin-esli-ty-

zhivesh-v-permi-i-khochesh-zanimatsya-kino-net-neobkhodimosti-uezzhat- v-mosk/

Pink S. 2006, The Future of Visual Anthropology: Engaging the Senses,

London: Routledge.

Roshal L. 1982, Dziga Vertov, Moscow: Iskusstvo.

Sarkisova O. 2017, Screening Soviet Nationalities: Kulturfilms from the Far North to Central Asia, London: I. B. Tauris.

Shnejderov V. 1964, Fil'my-puteshestviya – V Nauchno-populjarny fil'm. Vyp 2, Moscow: Iskusstvo.

Shnejderov V. 1970, Fil'my-puteshestviya – V Kino i nauka. Vyp. 3, Moscow: Iskusstvo.

Shub E. 1972, Zhizn' moya – kinematograf, Moscow: Iskusstvo.

Vertov D. 1966, Statyi. Dnevniki. Zamysly, Moscow: Iskusstvo.

Vishnevsky V.E. 1996, Dokumental'nye fil'my dorevoljucionnoy Rossii:

–1916, Moscow: Iskusstvo.

Yutkevich S.I. 1966, Kinoslovar' v dvuh tomah, Tom I, Moscow: Sovetskaya entsiklopediya.


Refback

  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.




ISSN 2284-0176

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY- 4.0)